China’s farming 30 years of reform and speed up the development of Sino –

 30 years ago, farming in China to speed up the reform of development, deepening reform in development, a substantial increase in the level of production of major

agricultural products and supply capacity of grain, cotton, oil, sugar and fruit per capita in 1977 from the 297.7 Kg, 2.2 kg, 4.2 kg and 6 kg in 2007 to 379.6 kg, 5.8 kg, 19.4 kg and 92.2 kg, respectively, increased 27.5 percent, 1.6 times, 3.6 times and 14.4 times for food and clothing from the lack of basic The well-off historic leap made a significant contribution to China’s economic and social development of stable and rapid played an important supporting role.

Food production by leaps and bounds in the development of cash crops production growth

To the household contract responsibility system in rural areas as the main content of the reform and the abolition of the people’s communes, introduced the household contract to establish a farmer’s production and operation status, and a substantial increase in agricultural prices, has stimulated the development of farmers in grain production To increase investment in the production of enthusiasm. Especially since 2004, the central issue of five in a row, “one document” adopted a series of effective measures to consolidate, improve and strengthen the protection of agricultural support policies to promote the stable development of grain production. 30 years ago, China’s grain production by 18 million mu in the area reduced to 15.83 million mu, the total output from 6,000 billion jin jin 800,000,000,000 quickly step onto the steps, one after another and to a catty 900,000,000,000 and 1 trillion level jin, 1998 In reaching 1,024,600,000,000 jin; from an average of 156.5 kilograms per mu quickly jumped to 240 kg and 275 kg in succession to a higher level and 300 kg, 316.7 kg achieved in 2007.

At the same time, crop yields in China’s economic growth has also been made. “Five-Year Plan” period the average per-mu yield of cotton in China reached 73 kg / mu, is “55” during the average yield of 2 percent. The total cotton production in 2007 hit an all-time high, reached 7,600,000 tons, 1977 was 2,050,000 tons, 3.7 times. The total oil production in 2005 reached 30,770,000 tons, is 7.7 times that of 1977. The total sugar production in 2007 reached 111,100,000 tons, is 5.5 times that of 1977.

Optimize crop began to highlight the versatility

With the adjustment of crop structure and promote the advantages of an in-depth regional distribution of agricultural planning, crop production gradually to the main advantages of regional focus, a more rational distribution of production, optimize the structure of cultivation, the main supply of basic products to achieve an overall balance, structure and quality of the balance Upgrade. First, the regional pattern of production shape. Rice, wheat, corn, soybean production concentration reached 85%, 90%, 60% and 50%; Yangtze River, Yellow River Basin in the northwest and the three major regional advantages cotton area and production accounted for 97% of the country and 98% ; Rapeseed in the Yangtze River Basin and central-south Guangxi, south-west of Yunnan, western Guangdong advantage of sugar cane industry with concentration reached 85% and 89%. The second is the development of farming continue to enhance coordination. Food crop production achieved by simply relying on the expansion of the area to increase total output to the stability of the area, relying on technology to increase the yield of major change for a variety of economic and horticultural crop production overall, sustainable development has provided space to create the conditions for the cultivation step by step Embark on comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development. The total area of grain crops planted area rose from 1977’s 80.6 percent decline in 2003 to 65.2 percent, from 2004 to 2007 basically stable at 66.2 percent to 68.9 percent between. Third, product quality and product structure was further optimized. 2007 rice, wheat, corn, soybean crops of the four integrated high-quality rate of 61.3 percent over 2003 to increase 19.8 percent. “Double high” sugar cane, the “double low” proportion of rape were 90% and 80%.

With the upper and middle reaches of the Yangtze River in winter and spring vegetable base, the Loess Plateau and the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau base in the summer and fall vegetables, coastal and border areas large-scale vegetable production base, especially in the north of Vegetable Greenhouse rapid development of China’s winter and spring and summer off-season vegetable consumption by What’s in the past, what to eat, what to eat what is basically the anniversary of the balanced supply and continuously meet the people’s diversified consumer demand. Crop protection functions from a single supply to the gradual expansion of diversity. First, the supply of agricultural products, more diversified, sophisticated, high-quality, balanced and effectively meet the broad masses of the people on the quantity and quality of farm produce needs; Second, with the farming and agricultural product processing industry is developing rapidly, farming and animal feed , Industrialization of energy are becoming more and more obvious; Third, the protection of crop farmers to increase employment and the promotion of farmers are still dominated by peasant family nearly 50% of operating revenue from farming; Fourth, rice, wheat, and other crops has become Many large and medium-sized cities in the green barrier, fruit, tea, mulberry, and other perennial cash crops in the greening of barren hills, water conservation, such as ecological protection has played an important role; Fifth, the traditional tea culture, Chinese culture and spend the further development of culture, music farm, Tourist Park, picking garden urban and rural people is becoming a new entertainment option.

The contribution rate of science and technology a substantial increase in capacity to continue to enhance disaster prevention and reduction

Rely on scientific and technological progress, changes in farming is an important way to development. 30 years, a variety of agricultural production is a substantial increase in cultivated land and labor to reduce gradually achieved, in the process, the progress of science and technology has played an important role. According to experts, the “seventh five-year plan” period, China’s agricultural scientific and technological progress contribution rate of 27%, the “Eighth Five-Year Plan” period of up to 34%, “Five-Year Plan” at the end of 48% over the “Seventh Five-year Plan” period to increase by 21 percentage points. Before the reform and opening-up, agricultural production is the main varieties of conventional (non-hybrid), the main crop varieties cover only about 80%, the replacement of one species need 10 years or so. At present, corn, rapeseed hybrids representing a penetration rate of 98%, the promotion of hybrid rice varieties has reached 50% of the insect-resistant cotton varieties genetically modified to promote more than 70%, improved variety of crops covered by more than 95%, only one species to replace 5 ~ 6, each time the replacement rate of increase in more than 10%, of which hybrids than conventional varieties yield an average of 20%.

Strengthening disaster prevention and reduction is to enhance the stability of the development of farming an important task. With global warming and environmental degradation, climatic disasters and biological disasters on agricultural production against the overall trend was increasing. In this regard, the agricultural sector at all levels to firmly establish the ideological reap a bumper harvest despite disasters, strengthen disaster prevention and mitigation, flood control and drought relief command has set up institutions to develop a “major natural disasters in agriculture emergency contingency plans” to establish a monitoring and early warning, emergency duty, The report of the disaster, and other systems, increased the human, material and financial resources invested to improve the agricultural disaster prevention, disaster, disaster relief capability to effectively control and mitigate the damage of natural disasters, China’s meteorological disasters, food production has been lost at the rate of 10% About the loss of biological disasters, the rate of 5% or so, food security and stable development of agricultural production.

In addition, China’s farming industry has managed to perfect. The state has promulgated and implemented the basic farmland protection, plant quarantine, seed, fertilizer, pesticide management, and other laws and regulations, management of farming by means of a simple administrative step by step to the administrative, economic and legal means of a comprehensive change in the initial took to the administration according to law, the rule of law Agricultural track, manage the increasing acts of norms, the government information increasingly transparent, more effective means of control, and vigorously promote the seed, fertilizer, pesticides and industrial development, a substantial increase in the quantity and quality of the supply of agricultural materials to promote the production of the technical aspect of it For food and agriculture and stable development of the material provides an important safeguard. Reform and opening-up, the supply of seed for the county to implement the main units “fan, on-demand, retention, use and the need to be complemented by the swap,” At present, seed sales of goods amounted to 9.0 billion more than the already heavy sales of more than 36,000,000,000 yuan. National chemical fertilizer from 1978 to 17,760,000 tons in 2007 to 51,090,000 tons, an increase of 1.9 times from a variety of nitrogen-based structure, and gradually to the compound, the high concentration of single-quality development of the fertilizer, fertilizer application by the idea of a simple pursuit of Gradually yield to the “production, efficiency, environmental protection,” change. Pesticide Safety Evaluation and gradually step up market supervision.